It is a process of Biological decomposition of organic materials like cowdung, poultry droppings etc. in the absence of oxygen. It is also called as anaerobic digestion.

Methane (CH4) 55-60%, Carbon dioxide (CO2) 35-40%, Trace elements of Ammonia Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and moisture.

Biogas Can be used for cooking, Lighting and running of engines.

If helps in rural sanitation, eliminate drudgery of women, reducing, deforestation, provides good quality organic manure and providing convenient safe and aesthetic waste disposal method

Any organic waste has the potential to produce biogas: human excreta, manure, animal slurry, fruit and vegetable waste, slaughterhouse waste, meat packing waste, dairy waste, brewery and distillery waste.

Methane is the principal gas in biogas. Methane is also the main component in natural gas, a fossil fuel. Biogas can be used to replace natural gas in many applications including: cooking, heating, steam and power generation, vehicular fuel, and as a pipeline gas.

Biogas production can reduce the pollution potential in wastewater by converting oxygen demanding organic matter that could cause low oxygen levels in surface waters. Nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorous are conserved in biogas effluents and can be used to displace chemical fertilizers in crop production.

While combustion of biogas, like natural gas, produces carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, the carbon in biogas comes from plant matter that fixed this carbon from atmospheric CO2. Thus, biogas production is carbon-neutral and does not add to greenhouse gas emissions. Further, any consumption of fossil fuels replaced by biogas will lower CO2 emissions.

One m2 of biogas contains an equivalent of 6 kWh of thermal energy. However, when converting biogas into electrical power, about 2 kWh of electricity is generated, the rest is converted into heat energy. Eg. 2 kWh is enough to power 100 watts of lamp for 20 hours.

The capacity of the biogas plant indicates how much biogas the plant produces in one day. For eg. 1 m3 biogas plant produces 1000 litres or 1 m3 (1 m3 = 1000 litres) of biogas in one day.

No. Only trained masons can construct these biogas plants, as it requires more skill to complete the construction without any cracks.

The necessary documents and complete information about the operation of the plant should be obtained from the construction agency, for subsidy of the construction work, the information about the initial filling of the plant, the availability of the operating material and any other related information. The phone number of the concerned department / agency employee should be obtained and noted.


Despite the common opinion that the amount of input raw material to fermentation corresponds to the volume of raw material after it, the quality of the raw material improves (virtually no odour, improved fertilizer properties, reduced organic loading and degree of contamination). The raw material can be divided into solid and liquid fractions, it can also be used as organic bio fertilizer for fields.

How much Biogas usage can help in replacing other fuel / energy source towards protecting environment?

1 m3 raw bio-gas usage is equal /replace the following Equivalent quantities of other source

Name of the fuel Quantity
Kerosene 0.620 Ltr
Fire-wood 3.474 kg
Cow dung cakes 12.296 kg
Charcoal 1.458 kg
Soft coke 1.605 kg
Butane 0.433 kg
Furnace oil 0.4171 Ltr


A biogas plant is like an animal. You must feed it every day and feed it with appropriate feedstock in the adequate amount. Just like an animal if you don’t take good care of it, it will become ill and will yield poor results.

The temperature should be in the range of 35 to 38 °C with the input slurry pH of 6.5 to 7.5. In the low temperature regions either hot water can be added to the input slurry or the digester can be insulated with a hot water jacket.

The feedstock should be mixed with water in the ratio of 1:1, made into slurry form and then can be fed to biogas plant. It majorly depends on the total solids content of waste materials. The optimum total solids content of the waste material should be 8-10% for the better activity of microorganisms.

No. The biogas has to be purified by removing the Carbon dioxide and Hydrogen Sulphide using scrubbing process and then it can be used in engines.

Yes. The density of biogas is lesser than the density of air. Hence, the chance of fire accident is very much lower compared to LPG.

No. There are stoves that are specifically designed for using biogas (The diameter of the burner holes is larger than LPG stoves).

The slurry need not be treated and can be directly disposed off to the agricultural field or shade dried and made into pellets for storage purposes.

A solution of soap is made and applied over the dome. In case of cracks in the dome, there will be formation of bubbles indicating the leakage of biogas.

It is true that once a beneficiary runs a plant, and later on he feels shortage of fuel. For this, a suitable decision can be taken by giving the detailed explanation in written by the beneficiary in the construction department with all the information. At present there are no clear guidelines in this matter in the central government rules.

Under special circumstances, the running plant can be kept for 30 to 40 days without feeding but its gate valve should be well closed.

Deenbandhu is better for long run use but water should not be more in the slurry. Complete slurry movement in the large tank should be done regularly. The amount of Daily feeding should be controlled rather than uniform feeding. Pipe Joints, gate volve, connection of stove should always be checked.

Adjust the air shutter

Remove collected water in pipelines

Chocking in inlet pipe and insert bamboo stick inside the inlet pipe, move it up and down.

more air or CO2 in the first collection of gas and allow the gas to escape 3-4 times.

Gas tap filled to burner is open and may be leakage in pipeline

Due to low temperature and pH, gas generation is low. Put slurry during afternoon, add poultry waste and adjust pH by adding line water

Low gas pressure and obstruction, between gas regulator and ventury.

Chocking of outlet and remove the blocking using bamboo.

Yes, we can supplement other animal wastes like poultry waste, goat & sheep and piggery waste to enhance the biogas production.


Small size biogas plants (1 - 25 m3) can be constructed and made functional within a duration of 1-2 months. Large capacity (>25 m3) may take about 4-6 months to have a functional biogas plant.

No. As the biogas plant functions at a temperature of 35 - 40 °C under anaerobic condition, any bacteria or virus present in it will be denatured. Also, this causes the weed seeds to be dormant and prohibit the weed growth when applied to the agricultural field.

In view of utility Deenbandhu and KVIC models are more successful plant.

This problem is mainly due to three reasons in Deenbandhu plant first due to change in quantity and quality of Daily feeding, the pipe joints open it selves and on repeatedly closing the gate valve.


Usually, it takes one hour for a person to pour cow dung solution daily in a family biogas plant. Whereas in turn, the maximum usage of gas is 0.31 cubic meter per person per day with a LPG equivalent value of Rs.7.50 for 0.2 kg and the equivalent value of NPK in biogas fertilizer from dung is Rs. 5.00, thus approximately Rs 12.5 is daily savings per person per day.

No, at present most of the banks do not provide separate loan for construction of family biogas plant. There are no clear guidelines by the authorized banks. The manufacturing agency also does not cooperate in getting plant construction loan from the bank, although this decision is within the jurisdiction of the bank. Therefore, the farmer can get the plant constructed by taking a general loan or agricultural loan.

According to the central government guidelines, a plant with a capacity of 2 cubic meters is required to meet the fuel requirement of a 5 member's family. Considering this the basis actual value is calculated to provide 45% to 50 % for providing subsidy. At the meantime, many state governments are also provides different assistance.

Capacity wise decision on biogas plant subsidy can be taken jointly by the central and the state government.

No, yet the central government amends the grant amount in 5 years or more.

Although it depends on the wishes of the farmer, mainly the farmer needs lump sum financial assistance at the time of construction while the grant money also gets after the construction because the middle and small farmers are not so financially capable while Other means of the fuel become available at monthly expense, compared to being able to construct it, at a reasonable cost.

Through the limited resources of the agency working in the state government, this program has been going on for the past many years, so basically the farmers have some information. Currently many self-employed workers are also working in this area. Information through new telecommunications also can be obtained.

It depends on the construction agency and the beneficiary, but according to the central government's plan, the plant is built by the construction agency in a guarantee of 5 years, in which case the beneficiary should get the construction faults with the help of the construction agency.

No, their targets are set based on the demand of construction agencies working in the districts of the state.

There is scope for this because the number of employees in the construction agency is limited, so it can be run well through the sarpanch and village secretary of the gram panchayat as they are regular in contact with villagers.

No, it is appointed by the state government.